As Zanu PF factions destroy each other, the military will have a huge say as to who would take over from President Mugabe.


As Zanu PF factions destroy each other, the military will have a huge say as to who would take over from President Mugabe.


He is a controversial prophet who continues to draw large crowds with his promise of miracles. But as his popularity soars he faces all sorts of allegations. So far he has survived.


Two secretary generals tried to topple him but failed. His wife walked out but returned home. Now MDC leader, Morgan Tsvangirai, is plotting his way to State House.


Latest news, entertainment and sports.

Saturday, 2 July 2016


BULAWAYO pastor yesterday stunned a court when he admitted that he raped his stepdaughter for four consecutive years from 2012 until she fell pregnant this year.

 The 40-year-old Fountain of Life in Christ Church pastor, who cannot be named to protect the identity of the victim, told regional magistrate Mr Chrispen Mberewere that he raped his stepdaughter to equip her with “practical sex skills” for the future.

Mr Mberewere sentenced the pastor to 20 years imprisonment, the maximum sentence for rape.

Members of his family wept uncontrollably as they bade farewell to the pastor who will spend the next 20 years behind bars for abusing the girl since she was 14-years-old.
“Accused is a minister of religion who vowed he would never repeat his sin and apologised to his family, the community, the court and God. He explained that he was concerned about his stepdaughter’s safety from sexual abuse by men and was equipping her for her own protection,” said Mr Mberewere.

“He raped his stepdaughter for the past four years and it wasn’t just a single chance encounter with temptation. By his own admission, he was the typical wolf in sheep’s clothing. The pastor has practically ruined the girl’s life after reducing her to a sex slave to be abused at the whim of his perverted mind,” he said giving his reasons for sentence.
“He raped his stepdaughter many times over a four-year period and if the State had managed to list all counts for him to receive punishment in respect of each one, he was going to face several lifetimes in prison.”

Prosecuting, Mr Simbarashe Manyiwa said in 2012, the pastor started staying with the girl and sometime in June that year, he called her into his bedroom saying he wanted to teach her how mature people live practically.

“On the same day, he asked his stepdaughter to sit on the bed and raped her once with a condom on. After the rape he took the used condom and showed the girl sperms as a way of teaching her safe sex,” said Mr Manyiwa.

“He then ordered the girl to keep quiet as his wife trusted him so much that she wouldn’t believe her if she opened up. From that time the pastor would have intercourse with his stepdaughter anytime of the day in his wife’s absence.”

Mr Manyiwa said the rape continued until last month when the girl missed her period and was questioned.

She denied sleeping with anyone until her mother took her for a pregnancy test which came out positive and she eventually revealed that the pastor had raped her since 2012 leading to his arrest. chronicle


PRIMARY and Secondary Education permanent secretary Dr Sylvia Utete-Masango yesterday refused to award the coveted Secretary’s Bell Award to a private college in Bulawayo, saying the award cannot be associated with mediocrity.
She said Higher Learning Centre did not deserve the honour.

The Secretary’s Bell is awarded to schools which would have made tangible efforts to provide classrooms and school libraries as well as e-learning opportunities for learners from early childhood development level up to Advanced Level.

The award includes a plaque and a cash prize of $5,000.
Dr Utete-Masango who had since Monday been awarding the 2014 and 2015 recipients of the awards made a U-turn at the college’s gate and went on to tour other schools in the city instead.

Speaking to Chronicle, Dr Utete-Masango said she could not understand how the college was nominated for the award.

“You’ll have to ask the province that question. They can answer it because the secretary’s merit award has a standard which must be maintained.
“If it’s something below standard then you can’t associate the permanent secretary with it. I couldn’t be associated with where they had taken me to. As far as the secretary’s merit award is concerned that school doesn’t qualify,” said Dr Utete-Masango.

Higher Learning Centre is located in the central business district near Eveline High School and offers secondary education up to Advanced level.
After the event was cancelled pupils and teachers feasted on the food which had been prepared.

School authorities said the event had been cancelled and refused to shed more light.
Kumalo Primary School, Pumula High, Founders High, St Patrick’s received the award in Bulawayo during the week.

Dr Utete-Masango said she was impressed by the performance of most schools in the city.
“You can see that schools are making a lot of effort not only in terms of academic attainment but in terms of general outlook. Yes, you can say they really need to catch up here and there. Generally I’m impressed by the motivation you find in the schools,” she said.

She toured Baines Infant Junior School, Lobengula Primary in Mzilikazi, Mpumelelo Primary and Cowdray Park Secondary School.

Speciss College was the first non-formal institution to win the Secretary’s Bell award in 2013. chronicle


THE First Lady Grace Mugabe is working on the construction of a university to be named after President Mugabe as a way of building the nation through education.

 Mugabe who was officiating at the Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce (ZNCC) awards ceremony here on Thursday night, said funds permitting, the Robert Mugabe University would be built in Mazowe where her other projects — the children’s home, dairy farm and school — are flourishing.

The First Lady did not give timelines for the construction of the university but said the country needed a paradigm shift when it comes to education.

She said the Amai Mugabe Junior School was being upgraded and a secondary school was under construction and there were plans to build a hospital and the university.

“Funds permitting I’m planning on building a hospital in future since there’s no major hospital in that area. Funds permitting also, I want to build a Robert Mugabe University because we want continuity and responsibility,” she said to a loud applause.

Mugabe said despite criticism from her detractors, she is a hard worker who has achieved all she has through dedication while carrying multiple roles as a mother, wife and businesswoman.

She said after serious brainstorming, she decided there is a need to shift attention to education.
The First Lady said she was engaging a number of partners towards funding the projects. “As a citizen of this country I just feel that I’ve a responsibility to build Zimbabwe without expecting to get a reward. All these are my ambitions and when I started people were saying I’m mad but where there’s a will there’s a way.

“I work very hard despite what you may have read in the Press and the children’s home speaks for itself as those who have seen it can testify. I’ve the energy… this woman is 60 horsepower. I’ve a good rapport with people who I can sweet talk for resources,” she said drawing laughter from the crowd.

“I had a paradigm shift and zeroed in on education because Zimbabweans are obsessed with it. I’m proud because the infrastructure is beautiful I tell you. I don’t compete with women but with humans.

“The structures are magnificent and solid that even an earthquake of 5.5 magnitude on the Richter scale will not shake it. There is one dormitory for boys which is almost complete and we’re also doing state-of-the-art hostels for girls.

“We all went to boarding school and stayed in dormitories and what I’m doing is introduce a paradigm shift where children should live in hotel style rooms. I got the designs from the First Lady of Equatorial Guinea and mobilised funds from embassies especially the Embassy of China,” said the First Lady.

She said all the projects, including the university will be on 50,000 square metres of land.
“I’m not saying this to make your ears itch but those who have been there know what I’m talking about,” she said.

The First Lady encouraged Zimbabweans to work hard to develop the nation using local resources.

“Zimbabweans I urge you not to despair when chips are down and we can do it our Zimbabwean way since we’re blessed with resources. It’s our responsibility to build Zimbabwe together,” added Dr Mugabe. chronicle


THIRTY-ONE percent of paternity tests done at the National University of Science and Technology (Nust) over the past 15 months came out negative. This exposes some women as cheats who try to force men to raise kids that are not biologically theirs. The DNA profiling tests, also known as genetic fingerprinting were done at the Bulawayo university’s Applied Genetics Testing Centre (AGTC) between April, 2015 and last month.

DNA testing is the most advanced and accurate technology to determine parentage.
Nust’s AGTC chairperson Mr Zephaniah Dhlamini said a total of 42 paternity tests were done during the period. “The outcomes revealed that there were 29 inclusions meaning the father was positive and 13 exclusions where the results between the father and child were negative. This means 31 percent of the people who were said to be fathers in disputed cases, were not. The paternity test costs $100 per head, so if we’re testing the father, mother and the child the total cost for the tests will be $300,” said Mr Dhlamini.

Doing DNA profiling at Nust costs significantly less than what Zimbabweans pay to have it done outside the country.
A lawyer said it costs about $500 for couples to take their blood samples to South Africa for the test.

Mr Dhlamini said it takes about eight hours to arrive at the results of paternity tests.
“However, it’s more cost effective to do the tests in larger batches. So we’ve resorted to conducting them every two weeks.
“This implies that if you’re lucky and be the last person to submit your samples you can get the required results within 24 hours,” he said.

Nust’s AGTC comes as a relief to some men who were forced to take their samples to South Africa for the test at higher cost.

Historian and social commentator Mr Pathisa Nyathi said some men who fail to raise money to pay for DNA tests might be maintaining other men’s children.

“There are many men who think that they’re parents when they aren’t. They’re many social fathers with social children. This only proves the cultural aspect that says the only person who knows who the father of a child is, is the mother,” said Mr Nyathi.

He said paternity testing is not a new phenomenon as it has always been done traditionally although it was very dangerous.

“Traditionally the child was taken through rituals where they’ll be given some traditional concoction to drink. The father’s family who did the test believed that if the child was one of theirs he/she wouldn’t die after going through the ritual process. But if the child died they won’t be from within that family,” he said.

He said some women chickened out on taking their children through the ritual process.
“This led to their children being called ivezandlebe (children whose paternity is not certain),” said Mr Nyathi.

A local gender activist said women were sometimes forced by “circumstances beyond their control” to cheat.

“We admit that there are women who deliberately cheat men but we must consider that it’s the same men who impregnate women and then deny responsibility. Women who find themselves in this situation can try tricking another man to raise the child considering the costs involved in raising children,” she said.

“We call upon men to be responsible enough and never put women in situations where they’ve to lie to another man to secure a child’s livelihood. Sometimes they fear the social stigma attached to ‘fatherless’ children.” chronicle


A mob torched a Zimbabwe Revenue Authority (Zimra) warehouse containing seized goods and over 40 vehicles worth hundreds of thousands of dollars as demonstrations against the implementation of Statutory Instrument No. 64 of 2016 continued at the Beitbridge Border Post last night.

The demonstrations saw travellers from various parts of the country cancelling their trips to South Africa while some bus operators in Harare refunded passengers.
The SI tightens screws on the import of basic commodities including food items, building materials, furniture, toiletries and cooking oil among other things.

This comes as Industry and Commerce Minister Mike Bimha told The Herald yesterday on the sidelines of the Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce congress in Victoria Falls that the instrument was targeted at businesses and did not affect ordinary travellers buying goods for personal consumption.

However, Zimra officials continued to demand permits and confiscate the listed products from individuals, sparking the chaos.

The demonstrators also threatened to burn down Manica Transit Shed where Zimra processes vehicle imports and the National Social Security Authority (NSSA) hotel.

A Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation news crew was attacked by the mob while covering the demonstrations.

The protesters, who call themselves Combined Residents Association, also destroyed a house where one member of the neighbourhood watch committee identified as “MaSpeed” lives.

They accused him of unleashing a reign of terror at the border post.
There were running battles between the police and the demonstrators for the better part of yesterday.

Roads were blocked with stones around the town and tyres were burnt along major roads.
Shops in the border town closed at around 2pm for fear of looting while those around Mashakada Business Centre and Engen Service Station and traffic lights were also vandalised.

The implementation of the new import regulations has been met with fierce resistance by travellers and ordinary importers who twice protested at Beitbridge Border Post.
Zimra gave in to pressure and suspended rolling out the new regime.
Commercial cargo had been stuck on Beitbridge Border Post (South African side) for seven days as importers struggled to get permits authorising them to import the restricted goods.
Said Minister Bimha: “Anyone who travels, you bring one, two or three items, that’s not the issue. The issue is to control certain products that we produce. The target is really more on our industry. We still have people who go out and bring things that we make here. That’s not an issue. But where people bring in things in large quantities for re-selling, the effect is that it affects our industry. There are job losses, there is no employment, there are no goods and services that can then go into the market.

“That’s the kind of thing we are talking about. Not you and I, who come with two bags of maize meal, that is allowed,” he said.

Minister Bimha said Government was open to considering applications from businesses that wanted to import some of the specified goods as long as they justified the action.
He said the protests that were happening at Beitbridge Border Post were regrettable but urged travellers to approach relevant authorities instead resorting to protests.

There were reports that South Africa briefly closed its door yesterday due to the protests while social media messages reported that Pretoria had banned Zimbabwean products from being imported into that country.

But Minister Bimha said Government always engaged its neighbours on what it sought to achieve with the introduction of Statutory Instrument 64/2016 including South Africa whenever there were issues of concern between the two countries.

“We do have technical bilateral meetings between officials of government from South Africa and here. We also have bilateral meetings where we discuss with the Minister responsible for Trade and Industry on all trade matters.

“Time and again, there are issues and concerns from both sides and we do meet to try and resolve them. That is what we do on a bilateral level. We have also advised Sadc on the measures we have taken because we know they will affect some of our regional partners explaining why we are taking them.

“If there is any country where they have problems with that, they have every reason to engage us. We are open for engagement. We are doing this on the basis of what we think is right for our economy just like any country would actually look at its own interests first,” said Minister Bimha.

He said despite the SI, Government still appreciated and respected its bilateral arrangements and agreements.

Minister Bimha said it was, however, important for Sadc countries to appreciate the reasons behind the move considering that the country was coming from a hyper-inflationary environment and was suffering from the illegal sanctions imposed on it by the West.

He said South Africa had not officially engaged Zimbabwe over the SI indicating that there was no problem between the two countries.

It was not business as usual at the usually packed Roadport bus station to South Africa in Harare yesterday as travellers panicked, resulting in numerous cancellations and postponements of travel bookings to that country.

Most travellers said they feared the potentially violent demonstrations at the Zim/SA border, a situation which was worsened and dramatised by the images circulating on social media.

The South African component of the border was closed between 6 and 12 in the morning but later opened for traffic following negotiations between the police and the protestors.
Zimbabwe’s national police spokesperson Senior Assistant Commissioner Charity Charamba said they had contained the situation.

She said three people had been arrested for orchestrating public disorder in Beitbridge adding that they had deployed police officers to all strategic points.
“We have managed the situation and we want to strongly warn those involved on such activities that we will not tolerate lawlessness,” she said. herald


It has emerged that only the courts can fine motorists and pedestrians $200 for picking up passengers or boarding vehicles at undesignated points as the police cannot collect fines above $20.

The clarification was made yesterday as the public was warned against being duped by corrupt police officers. The penalties are under Statutory Instrument 41 of 2016 of the Road Traffic (Traffic Signs and Signals) Regulations gazetted in April.

Traffic Safety Council of Zimbabwe spokesperson Mr Ernest Muchena recently said: “The fines are up to Level 5 which gives room to the police to charge where one can pay admission of guilt fine which is $20.

“If one decides not to pay admission of guilt and contests the charge, they then go to court. In that case the court will use its own discretion from Level 1 up to Level 5, which is $200.”
Anyone found guilty under the new regulations shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Level 5 or to imprisonment not exceeding six months or to both such fine and imprisonment.
On Wednesday, chief police spokesperson Senior Assistant Commissioner Charity Charamba urged the public and motorists to respect the new regulations.
“The Zimbabwe Republic Police would like to inform members of the public that there is new legislation, Statutory Instrument 41/16 which was put in place to deal with the mshikashika menace,” she said.

She said the public was discouraged from boarding pirate taxis or public service vehicles at undesignated points.
She said the Statutory Instrument makes it an offence for one to disregard regulatory markings such as “No hitch-hiking” signs.

“The no hitch-hiking sign indicates to a pedestrian that he or she shall not attempt to secure a lift from a passing vehicle and the driver of the vehicle that he or she shall not pick up passengers. This prohibition on hitch-hiking is effective for a distance of 500 metres beyond such a sign,” Snr Asst Comm Charamba said.

She said the Statutory Instrument further provides that any person who removes, damages, obscures or interferes with any sign or the support thereof, shall be guilty of an offence.
She said anyone found guilty under the regulations shall be liable to a fine not exceeding Level 5 or to imprisonment not exceeding six months or to both such fine and imprisonment.
The sign that prohibits the boarding of lifts at undesignated places has a crossed thumb.

It is also marked R207, indicating that a pedestrian must not attempt to secure a lift from a passing vehicle and the driver of a vehicle must not pick up passengers.

It is the responsibility of local authorities to erect the signs in the cities and towns with some of them already up in line with the sadc Protocol on Transport, Communication and Meteorology of 1999. herald

Friday, 1 July 2016


Police are investigating three suspected fraudsters and a city lawyer on allegations of conniving to defraud businessman Mr Frank Buyanga of his Greendale house in Harare worth over $530 000.

Those under probe are Harare lawyer Tamuka Moyo of Tamuka Moyo Attorneys, Tawanda Jakachira, Winnie Jakachira and Simon Charewa. The case numbers are CR Number Harare Central 2005 /4 /16 and DR Number Serious Frauds Squad Harare 16 /5/ 16.

This comes after they had been reports last week that Mr Buyanga had lost his Greendale house which was put up for sale by the Sheriff in a bid to recover $535 000 after “he failed to reimburse” a local couple $132 000 following a botched deal.

Mr Buyanga then made an urgent chamber application at the High Court and a report to the CID Serious Frauds Section over the case.
Mr Buyanga, through his lawyer, Mr Tichavona Mutebere of Mutebere and Company Legal Practitioners, made the application on Wednesday.

In the application Mr Mutebere said: “The first applicant (Mr Buyanga) has filed a police report against the first and second respondents, Simon Charewa and Tamuka Moyo for masterminding a fraud case against him and the second applicant (Rivin Vanam Trading {Pvt} Limited) regarding the purported sale of shares agreement and subsequent arbitration proceedings before Honourable M. H. Chinhengo which culminated in the attachment of first applicant’s immovable property and the pending sale.”
He said Tawanda and Winnie Jakachira alleged that they paid the purchase price to Mr Buyanga, but had failed to proffer proof of payment.

“The alleged proof of payment relied upon by the respondents was signed by Simon Charewa, who purported to write the letter on behalf of Hamilton Property Holdings dated January 2015. The letter is a fraudulent document which is being and was relied upon by the respondents (Tawanda and Winnie Jakachira) because at that time of the letter of confirmation, the Hamilton Property Holdings (Pvt) Limited was already under judicial management,” Mr Mutebere said.

He said it was placed under judicial management on September 12, 2012 and that no other person had authority to sign documents on behalf of Hamilton Property Holdings other than the judicial manager.

“Additionally, the alleged confirmation of payment did not come from the applicants who were parties to the sale of shares agreement, but allegedly from Hamilton Property Holdings.

“This a clear fraudulent proof of payment not confirmed by the applicants and as such the arbitral award and subsequent court order are based on a fraudulent misrepresentation that payment was made to the applicants yet there was no payment at all made to the owners of the property,” Mr Mutebere said.

He said if the judicial sale was allowed to proceed, Mr Buyanga would suffer irreparable harm.


Finance Minister Patrick Chinamasa  says Zimbabwe has “literally nothing” as he begged for lines of credit in Paris.

"Right now we literally have nothing, so to speak. Our strategy is to achieve private-sector-driven growth in the areas of agriculture, manufacturing, tourism, mining and our biggest challenge at the moment is that we do not have sufficient lines of credit." Chinamasa told RFI.

He said he was desperately searching for credit.e talked to business leaders about investment opportunities to revive the country's struggling economy. He also met with financial lenders at the Paris Club to conclude a deal on repaying almost two billion dollars of arrears. 

If finalised, the debt deal would signal Zimbabwe's return to financial markets after almost two decades.

The agreement to repay some 1.86 billion dollars of arrears to lenders such as the IMF, World Bank and African Development Bank, has however been met with scepticism in Zimbabwe, currently gripped by economic hardship.

"I am of course looking for increased lines of credit," he told RFI. "We've had some French state enterprises who are in the financial sector giving support to our productive sectors through our commercial banks and I've come to solicit and also ask that those lines of credit are increased."

International finance may help President Robert Mugabe's government meet its obligations to the Zimbabwean people, not a negligeable consideration given that fresh elections are to take place in 2018.

But repaying the arrears to obtain further credit will require more potentially sensitive measures, including public-spending cuts. There is limited appetite for that right now especially as most salaries are not getting paid. Teachers, particularly in rural areas, have not been paid for weeks.

"I don't think we would qualify for any more loans," economist John Robertson reckons. "Zimbabwe needs to prove that it can handle more debt, but the fact that we are in arrears in the first place clearly proves that we can't manage the debt we already have."

Currently Zimbabwe owes 10 billion US dollars to the IMF, World Bank and the African Development Bank.

"But it's important to distinguish between public-sector debt, [eight billion] and private-sector debt [two billion]," Chinamasa asserts.

"The debt we are talking about clearing is eight billion from the public sector, so we can start enjoying the benefits of our membership from the three multilateral institutions."

Chinamasa said the private sector was key to his strategy.

"The two billion private-sector debt is being serviced and everyone acknowledges that there's been no problem with the private sector to service its debt," he inisisted. "For that reason, I would want to see more resources being poured into the private sector which is in a position to service any debt which it incurs, at an affordable rate."

Experts remain unconvinced that this will contribute to "kickstarting the country's economy", as the minister hopes.

"The deadline for the debt deal was 30 June, it's now been pushed back to September," Roberston insisted.


Harare magistrate Vakayi Chikwekwe on Friday ordered the release of city mayor Bernard Manyenyeni who was arrested on Wednesday on alleged criminal abuse of duty as a pubic officer.

Magistrate Chikwekwe faulted the Zimbabwe Anti Corruption Commission and the Zimbabwe Republic Police for violating his constitutional rights by detaining him beyond the prescribed 48 hours before bringing him to appear before the courts.
In his ruling, Mr Chikwekwe said Section 50 of the Constitution was straight forward on over-detention.

“It is clear that officers from the Zimbabwe Anti-Corruption Commission (ZACC) were tracking Manyenyeni when he was in court,” said Mr Chikwekwe.
“ZACC chief investigation officer Mr Saviours Kufandada confirmed that one of their officers was sitting next to Manyenyeni in court,” he said.

“There were discrepancies by the State on what time Manyenyeni was arrested, surely one person or the others are lying.

“When Manyenyeni was taken by ZACC officers I would not term that an invitation because there was no need to escort him in his own vehicle.”
Mr Chikwekwe said if there were no sinister intentions to arrest him ZACC would have invited him by just a phone call.

“Kufandada said his colleague texted him saying, “tatotora (we have taken)” at 11:17am and this means Manyenyeni was in their custody,” he said.

“Section 41 (c) of the Criminal Procedure and Evidence Act is an obligation to the police and ZACC officers to comply with the new amendment.

“Manyenyeni was brought to court outside 48 hours and no warrant of further detention was applied for, he should be released immediately,” he said.

Challenging placement on remand, Manyenyeni’s lawyer Professor Lovemore Madhuku said his client was arrested at 10:25am and 48 hours elapsed before he was brought to court.

“The arrest was caused by people who want to disable the mayor from working. A ridiculous bail condition stating that he was not allowed to visit any City of Harare offices was imposed.
“This whole thing is about preventing the mayor from going to work,” said Prof Madhuku.
He then called Manyenyeni to the witness stand to testify that he was arrested outside the High Court at 10:25am.

“I was bundled in my own car and everything I asked the answer was no, no, no,” said Manyenyeni.
“I was escorted by many cars and the effect of arrest was unmistakable.”

Prosecuting, Mr Michael Reza insisted that Manyenyeni was arrested at 14:30pm and that ZACC officers merely invited him to their offices. Testifying as a State witness, Kufandada said the message, “tatotora” from his colleague meant their target (Manyenyeni) was on the move.

Charges are that between December 2015 and March 2016, Manyenyeni entered into a verbal agreement with Distinctive Consultancy Services and High Post Consultancy for provision of short listing, selection and screening services.

He also entered into verbal agreement with Ernst & Young for provision of psychometric tests on behalf of the City of Harare.

Manyenyeni allegedly caused the City of Harare to pay for the services without advertising or calling for quotations from prospective service providers. Distinctive and High Post Consultants were offered $3 500 and $2 500 respectively.

This, it is alleged, was despite the fact that the two human resources consultancy firms provide similar services.

It was alleged that the only difference was that Distinctive Consultancy had nominated Manyenyeni’s preferred candidate, Mr James Mushore, for the post of Harare town clerk. It was alleged that Manyenyeni influenced the shortlisting, screening and selection process.

Out of the 15 shortlisted names by Distinctive and 16 by High Post Consultants, Manyenyeni made sure that Mushore was in the final list. It was alleged six people were common to both consultancy companies and realising that Mushore would not make it, Manyenyeni added another six people, including Mushore’s name.

The 12 names were allegedly handed over to Ernst & Young for psychometric tests without council resolution.

On the second count, Manyenyeni allegedly offered recruitment services for town clerk to Patrick Chingoka of High Post Consultancy.

It was alleged Manyenyeni entered into the contract without disclosing to council any financial or personal relations he had with Chingoka.